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SUNNIE JUNG 채무조정 칼럼

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 Sunnie Jung Financial Restructuring Column
 SUNNIE JUNG 채무조정 칼럼


개인회생 그리고 개인파산 차이점?

by SUNNIEJUNG 조회 수:476 2014.11.24 09:43


shutterstock_which-will-you-choose.jpg : 개인회생 그리고 개인파산 차이점을 아세요?

shutterstock_which-will-you-choose.jpg : 개인회생 그리고 개인파산 차이점을 아세요?


SUNNIE JUNG 채무칼럼

캐나다 

 

개인회생 vs 개인파산 

 

차이점 & 비교분석

 

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캐나다에서 채무청산 해결책을 찾고 계십니까?

 

 

가장 합법적이고 대표적인 캐나다 연방정부의 부채탕감 해결책으로 개인회생과 개인파산이 있습니다이 두 제도가 갖는 공통적 법적효력 (Legal Protection)  신청서에 서명하는 순간 바로 발효되는 반면동시에  제도에는 현저한 차이가 분명이 있음을 밝혀둡니다.

 

캐나다 이민 생활 가운데 과중한 부채로 인한 고통속에서 정상적인 생활자체가 어려울때 온전히 삶에 힘과 용기가 되어주는 캐나다 연방법의 개인회생  개인파산  제도를 비교분석해서  차이점을 일목요연하게 정리해서 알려드리고자 합니다.  

 

캐나다 개인회생 vs 개인파산 신청대상자격비용효과채무대상채무금액매각자본법적효과법적의무신용등급  신용기록세금환급과 공제면책신용카드발급  대출신청의 여부 등을 종합적으로 비교 정리 해드리니참고하여 많은 도움이 되기를 희망해봅니다.

 

캐나다 통계청에 의하면 지난 10년간 해마다 꾸준히  120,000 명의 사람들이 캐나다에서 회생과 파산으로 채무청산을 하고 있다는 보고입니다실제로 캐나다 전역에 걸쳐서 한인 채무자들을 대상으로 채무종합서비스를 해드리고 있는 당사로서도 상당수의 한인 동포분들께서 주별로 꾸준하게 채무청산 해결책을 찾아서 적극적으로 문의해오시는 추세입니다

 

그중에는 당사가 100% 도와드릴  있는 채무자분들도 계시는가 하면, 한편으로 회생이나 파산외의 다른 방법이  합리적인 해결책이   있는 분들도 종종 계십니다

 

따라서무엇보다 알아두면 유익한 캐나다 개인회생과 개인파산 관련 정보를 보다 많은 한인동포 여러분들에게 홍보, 공유함으로서 적어도 혼자서 속수무책으로 채무고통속에서 비관하지 마시고 신속히 채무상담을 통해서 합리적이고 효율적인 부채청산 해결책을 찾으실  있기를 진심으로 바랍니다

 

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구분

개인회생

개인파산

신청대상자

Who Can Claim

·         일반적으로 재산보다 채무가 많아야 한다.

·         재산이 있다면 재산의 청산가치 보다  많이 변제할  있는 .

·         반드시 자력으로 혹은 가족들의 도움으로  채무변제상환금을   있는 가용소득 증명 가능한 .

·         현재와 장래에 계속적으로 또는 반복하여 수입을 얻을 가능성이 있는  그리고 일정한 소득이 있는 .

·         소득에서 생계비를 제한 가용소득을 채무변제금으로 분납할  있는 .

·         최대 5 동안 변제계획대로 변제상환금을 매월 꾸준히 납입할  있는 두번 연체는 용납되나 3번째 체납은 바로 무효화로 직결.

·         무수입 또는 수입이 있어도 최저생계비에도 못미치는   

 

·         재산이 없고 재산이 있어도 처분하여 채권자들에게 변제를 하여도 잔존 채무가 있는  (때로는 부동산자동차  재산을 처분하고도 채무가 변제되지 않아서 남은 채무로 인해서 파산하는 경우도 빈번)

 

 

부채금액

Amount of Debts

·          무담보채무가 250,000 미만인 자로 캐나다 국내 또는 그밖의 나라 (한국  소유하고 있는 부동산이 없는 세입자이거나 부동산을 소유하고 있더라도 Primary Residence (non-rental property, 비임대건물로서 실거주 주택이나 콘도 경우에 Division II Proposal 일반 개인회생의 자격이 있는 .

·         무담보채무가 1,000 이상인 개인 채무자로 변제능력을 상실한  (Insolvent)

비용  부채탕감

채무변제상환금:

·         일반적으로 재산이 없고 잉여수입이 없다는 전제하에 무담보채무를 최대 70% 까지 원금탕감을 받고 무이자로 최장 60개월간에 걸쳐서 변제하면 모든 무담보채무가 100% 면제 (탕감).

·         최대 80% 까지도 원금탕감인 가능한 경우는예로 부부간의 Joint Debts (연대공동책임의 채무 50% 이상일 경우.

·         항간에 파산관재인의 법정관리비가 10% 추가된다고 하는 낭설이 있는데 오류임파산관재인이 채권은행으로 부터 지급되는 모든 Costs & Tariffs  이미 채무자의  채무변제금에 포함되어져 있기 때문에 결국은 채무자의 변제금액은 동일.

·         하지만담당 파산관재인이 누구냐에 따라 자신의 Costs & Fees  채무변제상환금에 포함하지 않고 따로 받을   있는 경우는 100 Cents On Dollar Proposal  경우가 있을 수도 있지만그것은 전적으로 채무자 대변인인 채무조정전문인의 네고 능력에 좌우실례로 당사를 통한 모든 개인회생 신청자들은 파산관재인의 비용을 별도로 내지 않음.

파산비용:

·         개인파산의 Bankruptcy Cost  계산법은 개별차가 크다.

 

·         잉여수입과 재산이 없고 또한 파산기각의 사유가 없는한 1 파산은 법정파산비용 1,800불로 동일.

 

·         지불방식도 파산관재인과 주별로 상이; 225불을 8개월간혹은 200불을 9개월간 요구하는 파산관재인이 있는 반면, 1,800불을 일시불로 지불시 1,600불로 해서 200불을 감면해주는 파산관재인 있음.  

 

·         상기를 제외한 개인파산은  개인의 재산소득가족수잉여수입 (Surplus Income), 법정 압류면제대상 (Bankruptcy Exemption) 재산법정 최저생계비 등을 종합해서 파산비용 산출개별차가 현저하므로 전문가와 사전상담 요구.

매각재산

Assets

자동차비지니스금융재산, RRSPs, RESPs, GICs  모든 재산보호

각주별 규정된 법정압류면제대상 (Bankruptcy Exemption) 외의 재산과 법규정 이상의 청산가치를 가진 재산은 파산시 매각처분되거나 다시 buy-back (역구매가능.

신용불량 해제시기

Credit Rating

Credit Bureau  Credit Report  Credit Rating (신용등급 R9 (신용불량에서 R7 으로 등급되어서 마지막 채무변제일로부터 3년간 R7으로 남음.

 

You will receive an R7 credit rating, which indicates that you have made a settlement with your creditors. This is not a good credit rating, but it is better than a bankruptcy R9. Will be reflected on credit bureau for 3 years after completion. Can start to rebuild credit during proposal period.

파산자의 Credit Report  Credit Rating (신용등급 R9 (신용불량자으로  7 – 14 년간 기록 (1 파산 7, 2 파산 14).

주의: 항간에  채무칼럼에서 파산이 면책후 바로 R7 으로 신용등급이 상향되어서 신용회복이 바로 시작된다고 하는 터무니 없는 오류의 글이 있다고 해서 확인해보니 잘못된 정보임.

 

You will receive an R9 credit rating, which is the worst rating you can have. Depending on your circumstances, it will remain on your credit report for 7 to 14 years. Will be reflected on credit bureau for 6 years after completion or more if 2nd or more time bankrupt.

월수입보고

Monthly Income Report

·         Locked-in Contract 으로 한번 정해진  채무상환변제금은 불변하고싸인업과 승인의 변제기간중의 개인 재산증식수입증가  어떠한 재산  수입보고를 누구에게도  의무없이 자유롭다.

 

·         Open-end Contract 이라서 Penalty 없이 언제든지 능력껏 나머지 변제금을 한꺼번에  Pay-off    있어서 곧바로 신용회복이 가능 (가속조항, Acceleration Clause) 

·         파산자는 파산전 (Pre-bankruptcy)  파산후 (Post-bankruptcy)  파산기간동안 수입과 소득을 보고할 의무가 있으며이기간 동안의 재산과 수입의 증가여부를 파산감독국과 파산관재인이 관리감독.

·         파산관재인에 따라서 파산자의 배우자까지도 수입과 함께 지출을 월별로 각각 파산기간 동안 보고하기를 요구하는 까다로운 파산관재인도 있다.

·         역으로 전체를 한장의 수입보고서로 일괄해서 한번에 받는 파산관재인도 있으니 개별차가 있음에 염두 모든것이  파산관재인의 재량인 것을 혹자는 단편적으로 일반화시켜서 대중의 오해를 초래하는 경우도 발견.

·         항간의 편파적인 회생과 파산관련 칼럼에 현명한 판단과 통찰력이 요구된다이사실 규명은 간단하게 OSB (파산감독국 Industry Canada (캐나다 산업청 홈페이지에서 즉시 확인가능.

세금환불과 세금공제

Tax Refunds & Credits

국세청이 지불하는 Tax Refunds  Tax Credits  종전과 동일.

파산한 해에 받지 못한 전년도 소득세환급액과 받을 국세청의 Income Tax Credits   잉여수입으로 취급되어 압류되고, HST/GST Credits  일정기간 동안 hold 당한다.

채무면책

Discharge

정해진  변제액을 완불하면 100% 빚청산중요한 점은 개인회생제도는 파산과는 달리 채무변제기간을 채무자가 단축하여 조절가능Flexible Repayment Term

파산감독국파산관재인채권자들의 면책 기각 (Discharge Opposition)  없는 자동면책 (Automatic Discharge) 라는 전제하에 잉여수입 (Surplus Income )  유무에 따라서 1 파산은 9 – 21 개월, 2 파산은 24 – 36 개월의 파산기간 소요Inflexible and Fixed Term

대출카드 발급여부

Credit Application

어디까지나 은행권의 재량에 따르며채무자의 채무청산 (개인회생사실을 알릴 의무가 없고가능하다면 언제든지 담보/무담보 신용카드와 신용대출을 신청발급받아도 무방. You can apply for credit not having to disclose you are in a Consumer Proposal.

 

·         파산기간 동안에는 모든 신용카드 사용이 금지 (, Pre-paid Credit Card, Supplementary Card  파산 기간에도 사용가능).

·         500-1000 이상의 돈을 빌릴 경우에는 상대편 채권자나 은행에게 파산사실을 알릴 의무가 있다.

·         파산면책 후에는 Secured Credit Card, GIC Loan, RRSP Loan, Secured Car Loan 등을 신청발급할  있으나 승인여부는 채권자 재량.



  

 

 

개인회생과 개인파산의 유사점과 공통사항

 

 

·         집모기지자동차 할부금 리스금:  회생과 파산과 무관하게 담보채무는 채무자가 직접 종전처럼 동일하게 불입해야 보존가능

 

·         대상채권:         카드빚, Line of Credit, Bank Overdraft, 개인소득세, GST/HST 국세청 체납세금밀린 월세임대료콜렉션 채무주정부 학자금융자 (졸업후 7년이상된 OSAP 학자금), Payday Loans, 병원비 체납분각종 공과금 연체료사채, Surrendering 자동차 대출금 (Car Loans), 차리스금 등이 청산되는 채무.

 

·         Joint Debts  부부간 혹은 동업자간에 공동으로  채무인데연대보증 채무로서 Guarantor, Co-Applicant, Co-Signer  라고 불리며이것은 Jointly and Severally Liable 하기 때문에 ‘공동다수의 연대보증 책임’  개별  단체적으로 보증서준 모든 채무자가 100%  채무를 책임짐.

 

·         CRA 국세청은행카드사, Collection Agency 등의 채권추심 ( 전화편지채무소송급여압류은행계좌압류유치권  중지/금지명령 (Stay of Proceedings).

 

·         2번의 신용교육 받을 의무. 

 

·       면책불허가채무회생과 파산으로 청산되지 않는 채무로는 담보채무와 파산법  178조에 규정된 무담보 채무들예를 들면법원 판결의 벌금과태료벌칙금보석금신체상해성폭행강간불법사망으로 인한 변상금배우자  자녀 부양비위자료사기공금횡령  배임죄 관련 채무문서조작  문서위조 관련 계획적 사기성 채무은닉재산, 7 미만된 주정부학자금대출, EI overpayment, Highway 407 (유료고속도로 요금), Traffic tickets and court fines (교통티켓 벌금과태료), 연대보증채무 (Guarantor, Co-Signer, Co-Applicant, Joint Debts) 등은 면책되지 않고 끝까지 갚아야할 Surviving Debts.

 

 

 

개인회생, 개인파산파산면책  부채청산과 관련해서 회생과 파산의 신청절차자격요건서류심사비용장단점  상세사항을 알고싶으시면지금 바로 저희 ZERODebt  CANADA Inc  ()캐나다채무청산희망플러스 에서 채무조정스페설리스트로 일하고있는 법무사 써니 에게 문의해주세요무료채무상담을 통해서 채무청산의 옵션들을 설명해드리고 가장 알맞는 솔루션을 찾아서 채무자의 대변인으로서 채무자의 권익을 최대한 옹호해 드리겠습니다또한풍부한 실무경험과 탁월한 법적 노하우를 바탕으로 오로지 채무자지향적 책임 만족서비스를 제공해드리기 위해 언제나 최선을 다하고있습니다. 



     [저작권자©ZeroDebt Canada Inc. ()캐나다채무청산희망플러스무단복제 및 전재-재배포 금지]     

상기의 본문은 일반적인 교육 목적으로만 제공되었으며 법적 조언이 아닙니다.    

본인의 상황에 맞는 구체적 조언을 받기 위해서는 반드시 사전 선임 retainer  통해서 상담을 하시기 바랍니다.    

Disclaimer:    This is not intended as legal advice. This is offered for informational purposes only.     

법무사 SUNNIE JUNG  Licenced Paralegal | Financial Restructuring Specialist      

1.888.510.ZERO (9376) | 647.560.HOPE (4673) | info@zero-debtcanada.com | www.zero-debtcanada.com | www.4debtors.ca      

 


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