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SUNNIE JUNG 채무조정 칼럼

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 Sunnie Jung Financial Restructuring Column
 SUNNIE JUNG 채무조정 칼럼



10 620-credit-cards-court-dont-max-out-bankruptcy.imgcache.rev1355520684345.web.jpg : 개인파산에 대한 오해와 진실 (9) (10) - Myth #9 & 10: 미래에 불이익을 준다 & 파산전에 신용카드를 한도액까지 채워 쓴후 파산신청해도 좋다

SUNNIE JUNG 채무칼럼


개인파산에 대한 오해와 진실 (9) & (10)


Canadian Bankruptcy Myths & Facts




Myth #9:     배우자의 직장자녀의 학업등 가족들 미래에 불이익을 준다 It’ll mar my spouse’s job, kid’s school and family’s future life



상기 8번에 기술한 설명과 동일한 맥락에서 이것도 한마디로 낭설입니다개인파산은 Joint Debts  없는한 철저하게 신청자에게만 국한되며 배우자자녀부모   누구의 직업과 학교신용등급장래와는 전혀 관계가 없습니다.


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 Myth #10:    파산전에 신용카드를 한도액까지 채워 쓴후 파산신청해도 좋다 I can max out all of my credit cards and then go bankrupt


‘This is an offence committed under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (BIA) and the Criminal Code’ 라고 규정되어 있습니다한마디로 이런 불법행위는 사기죄 (Fraud)  해당되며 캐나다 연방경찰 (Royal Canadian Mounted Police-RCMP)  의해 Criminal Code (형법 따라서 기소되어 형사처리  수도 있는 아주 심각한 위법행위 (Violation of Law) 입니다또한이것은 법의 취지인 ‘helping an honest and unfortunate debtor’ 라는 기본정신에 위배되며이에 따라 파산법은 Unfortunate and Dishonest (불운한 채무자와 부정직한 채무자구분하여 철저하게 관리감독하고 있습니다.


일반적으로 모든 법의 적용이 그렇듯이 파산보호법도 의도성 (Intent), 공정성 (Justice), 형평성 (Fairness)  기본으로 합니다항간에 누가 파산전에 재산을 매각하고 양도했다더라가진 크레딧한도를 Max 채워서 쓴후 파산했다더라 하는 Hearsays  그대로 믿고 따라 했다가 크게 낭패를 당할  있겠습니다내가 갚지 못할 것을 알고 혹은 갚지 않을 심산으로 돈을 빌린다든지 카드빚을 늘려서 의도적으로 상대 채권은행이나 카드회사를 기만하는 것은 사기죄 (Fraud) 라고 파산법원은 판결을 내립니다.


문두에 말한것 처럼 ‘Fraud is a criminal act’ 로서 형사처벌을 받게 될수도 있는데이것은 파산법에 대한 불법행위 (Bankruptcy Offences)  캐나다는 물론이고 한국이나 미국에서도 기소되어 형사로 처리되기도 합니다채무소송 자체는 민사이지만사기성 채무배임  파산전의 재산매각  은닉은 위법으로 파산감독국 (Office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy-OSB), 파산관재인 (Trustee in Bankruptcy 또는 an Officer of Court)  그리고 채권자에 의해 기각당할  있고 면책불허가사유에 해당됩니다.


파산관재인이란?

이같이 파산신청 전후 그리고 파산기간 동안에 파산자의 파산보호법 (Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act) 악용하는 행위를 감시관리감독하는 기관이 캐나다 파산감독국과 파산관재인입니다파산관재인은 채권자에게 최소한의 금전적 손해와 채권자의 최대한의 법적권익을 옹호하기 위해 연방정부로부터 라이센스를 받은 법정대리인으로 Officer of Court 라고 불립니다 (A trustee is an officer of the court. Thus, the trustee has an obligation to look after the creditors’ rights and to investigate the debtor’s affairs).

 

Statement of Affairs

파산관재인은 채무자의 청산시에 작성되는 자산부채  순재산을 나타내는 자산부채표 Statement of Affairs (Form 79)  작성하여 채무자에게 기재사실을 선서하도록 시킨후 싸인을 받은 Sworn Declaration (채무자가 맹세하고 선서한후 싸인한 사실증명서입니다. 이것은 법원의 판사앞에서 하는 선서와 동일한 법적효력을 가집니다. 

 

Unfortunate vs. Dishonest (불운한 채무자 vs. 부정직한 채무자)

가끔상담해 오시는 채무자들 가운데 파산과 회생 신청전에 가지고 있는 신용카드를 limit 까지 쓰거나 cash advance 또는 balance transfer하여 카드사용액을 높여서 하는것이 어떠냐  질문을 해오십니다솔직히 당황스러운 질문이지만그렇게도 생각할  있겠다고 여기는 것이 막상 채무자가 파산신청을 하기로 마음을 먹고 나면 남은 신용카드 한도액이 아깝게 느껴질  있고그래서 limit 도달할 때까지 신용카드를 쓰고 평소 가지고 싶었지만 고가라서 사지 못했던 물건도 구입하고 현금인출서비스 cash advance 받는 것이 현명한 처사라고 생각할 수도 있기 때문입니다하지만여기서 간과할  없는 것이 상대편 채권은행이나 카드회사의 입장인데그들의 관점에서 보면 돈을 떼이게 되는것이 되기때문에 어쩔수없이 피치못해서 파산하는 채무자와 파산제도를 악용해서 의도적으로 채권자를 소위 ‘물먹이는 행위’  하는 채무자와는 결단코 구분해서 면책불허가사유에 의해 철저하게 용납하고 있지 않기 때문입니다또한파산감독국과 채권자 대표인 파산관재인의 ‘Sniff Test’   의해 기각 되어지기도 합니다이러한 채무자의 행동들은 Creditor로부터 Adversary Proceeding  통해 Challenge 되고 결국은 채무가 면책되지 않을  있으므로 원칙적으로 파산결정을 하고 나면 신용카드 빚을 갚지도 말고 또한 신용카드를 쓰지도 말아야 합니다.


파산면책불허사유 - Bankruptcy Offences

참고로파산면책불허가사유는 파산자가 파산직전에 하는 아래와 같은 위법행위들입니다.

1)          파산자가 자기 재산을 숨기거나 다른 사람 명의로 바꾸거나 헐값에 매각/양도하는 행위

2)          파산자가 채무를 허위로 증가시키는 행위

3)          파산자가 낭비 또는 도박 등을 하여 현저히 재산을 감소시키거나 과대한 채무를 부담하는 행위

4)          파산자가 현저히 불리한 조건으로 채무를 부담하거나 신용거래로 구입한 상품을 현저히 불리한 조건으로 처분하는 행위

5)          파산자가 파산원인 사실이 있음을 알면서 어느 채권자에게 특별한 이익을  목적으로 파산자의 의무에 속하지 않거나  방법 또는 시기가 파산자의 의무에 속하지 않는데도 일부 채권자에게만 변제하거나 담보를 제공하는 행위

6)          파산자가 허위의 채권자명부를 제출하거나 법원에 대하여  재산상태에 관하여 허위진술하는 행위

7)          법이 규정한 파산자 의무를 지키지않는 행위 (법정 파산비용 완불, 2회의 Credit Counselling, 주소지변경시 리포트파산신청 전후의 수입보고 등의 의무)


파산자와 파산관련 위법행위에 대한 자세한 사항들은 아래의 정부 웹사이트에서 참고하실  있겠습니다.


Royal Canadian Mounted Police

http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/qc/pub/faillite-bankruptcy/faillite-bankruptcy-eng.htm

Be careful! Regardless of what others may tell you, bankruptcy and abuse of credit constitute criminal offences if you do not abide by the law. Don't be fooled by the apparent ease of declaring bankruptcy or abusing credit, the consequences are many and include fine and/or prison sentence!

 

Industry Canada

http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/bsf-osb.nsf/eng/br02655.html

·         What are the offences?

 

The most common offences committed under the BIA and the Criminal Code are when the bankrupt:

 

o    Fraudulently disposes of property before or after the bankruptcy;

o    Makes false entries in a statement of account or hides, destroys or falsifies a document related to his/her property or affairs;

o    Obtains credit or any other good through false representations;

o    Conceals or fraudulently removes property, or conceals claims or debts;

o    Obtains credit or engages in trade without informing the people involved that he/she is bankrupt;

o    Refuses to respond fully and truthfully to questions posed during an examination held in accordance with the BIA.

 

개인파산파산면책  부채청산과 관련해서 파산절차자격요건서류심사비용장단점  상세사항을 알고싶으시면,  지금 바로 저희 ZERODebt  CANADA Inc  ()캐나다채무청산희망플러스 에서 채무조정스페설리스트로 일하고있는 법무사 써니 에게 문의해주세요무료채무상담을 통해서 채무청산의 옵션들을 설명해드리고 가장 알맞는 솔루션을 찾아서 채무자의 대변인으로서 채무자의 권익을 최대한 옹호해 드리겠습니다또한풍부한 실무경험과 탁월한 법적 노하우를 바탕으로 오로지 채무자지향적 책임 만족서비스를 제공해드리기위해 언제나 최선을 다하고있습니다. 


     [저작권자©ZeroDebt Canada Inc. ()캐나다채무청산희망플러스무단복제 및 전재-재배포 금지]     

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Disclaimer:    This is not intended as legal advice. This is offered for informational purposes only.     

법무사 SUNNIE JUNG  Licenced Paralegal | Financial Restructuring Specialist      

1.888.510.ZERO (9376) | 647.560.HOPE (4673) | info@zero-debtcanada.com | www.zero-debtcanada.com | www.4debtors.ca      



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